Animal biological drugs and their use
I. Preservation and Delivery of Bio-pharmaceuticals (1) Vaccines are susceptible to light and temperature and rapidly reduce their effectiveness, so they should be kept in refrigerators at 2 to 5°C. Failure to activate vaccines such as freezing has a negative impact on efficacy, so the refrigerator cannot be over-cooled, causing the vaccine to freeze and fail. (2) When the vaccine is delivered, it should still be kept in a refrigerated state, transported by a refrigerated truck, and shortened the delivery time as much as possible. After reaching the destination, it should be put into a 4°C refrigerator. If no refrigerated truck can be transported, it should also be transported using a frozen plastic popsicle (liquid vaccine) or dry ice (dry vaccine). (3) Cell-dependent vaccines, such as the liquid vaccine for turkey-herpesvirus of Marek vaccine, must be kept in liquid nitrogen at minus 195°C. During the storage period, check whether the liquid nitrogen in the container is going to disappear every week. If it is about to disappear, it should be supplemented. (4) Even if the country approves a qualified vaccine, if it is improperly stored, transported and used, it will affect the quality of the vaccine and reduce its effectiveness. Second, the use of vaccines should pay attention to matters (1) First of all, should read the instructions used by the pharmaceutical factory, and in accordance with its usage and dosage. (2) Check whether the vaccine bottle has an adhesive inspection certificate and whether it exceeds the expiration date. If it has exceeded the vaccine expiration date, it cannot be used. (3) The vaccine should absolutely avoid direct exposure to sunlight. (4) The syringe should be boiled or steam autoclaved and must not be chemically disinfected (alcohol, stearic acid, etc.). (5) The dry vaccine after addition of the diluted solution should be used as soon as possible and it should be used within 24 hours at the latest. (6) Vaccines should be used in healthy herds. Vaccination should be suspended if there is a lack of energy, loss of appetite, fever, diarrhea, or other symptoms. Otherwise, not only can not get good immunity, and will increase its condition. (7) Inactivated vaccine Most adjuvants are added, especially oils are easier to precipitate. Each time the vaccine was taken out of the syringe, the vaccine bottle was shaken vigorously and the content of the vaccine was completely homogenized before use. (8) Vaccine empty bottles and unused vaccines should be disinfected and discarded. (9) Record in detail the type of vaccine used, brand name, batch number, expiration date, injection date, and injection response, and keep it for future reference. Third, the chicken drinking water injection vaccination should pay attention to matters (1) drinking fountains should be clean water without disinfectant scrub after use. (2) Diluted vaccines should not be formulated with water containing disinfectant or partially acidic or alkaline water. Distilled water should be used. If you have to use tap water, add about 0.01 grams of Hypo (Sodium thiosulfate) to 1,000 ml of tap water after removing the tap water to disinfect the tap water, or use it for 1 night. (3) Drinking water should be suspended before inoculation, about 1 hour in summer and about 2 hours in winter. In summer, the temperature of white fleas is relatively high. To reduce the loss of vaccine virus, it is advisable to implement drinking water inoculation when the temperature is low in the early morning. (4) The amount of drinking water in the formulated vaccine was within 2 hours. The amount of drinking water per apple per day was as follows: 4 days of age 3 ˉ 5 ml 4 weeks of age 30 ml 4 months of age 50 ml (5) Drinking water per 1,000 ml Add 2-4 grams of skimmed milk powder to protect the vaccine against virus survival. (6) Adequate drinking fountains should be prepared. At least 2/3 of the chickens in a group of chickens can drink water at the same time and at appropriate intervals and distances. (7) Drinking water disinfectants should not be added to drinking water within 24 hours after the administration of drinking water. Because of impeding the proliferation of the vaccine virus in chickens. (8) This method is simpler and labor-saving than injection or eye-dropping, spot-nose, but uneven production of immune antibodies is its disadvantage. Table 1 Dilution drinking capacity for drinking water Chicken age 4 days old 14 days old 28 days old 21 months old Dissolve 1,000 doses of drinking water 5 liters 10 liters 20 liters 40 liters Note: It can be increased or decreased according to the season. Four, chicken spray inoculation should pay attention to matters (1) spray inoculation should be selected from the clean chicken farm is due to the implementation of healthy chicken apple, due to this method compared with the eye, nose and drinking methods, there is a serious respiratory incursions , If suffering from CRD will make the CRD worse. After the spray inoculation, it must be kept under good hygiene management. (2) Pigs inoculated by spraying should be 4 weeks old or older and should be first administered by a person who has been immunized with a less viable live vaccine. (3) Dilutions should be placed in the refrigerator 1 day before inoculation. Per 1,000 tablets of dilution were used in cages of 30 ml and flat feeders of 60 ml. (4) When the spray is inoculated, the windows, ventilating fans, and ventilation holes should be closed and one corner of the house should be reached. It is better to cover the plastic cloth. (5) Staff should wear masks and windproof glasses. (6) In order to prevent respira- tory disease, antibiotics may be used before and after spraying. Fifth, the use of chickens in the use of vaccines (1) Newtown chicken quail vaccines can be divided into live vaccines and inactivated vaccines.